KidBrains Rewind 2018!
Posted January 19th, 2019 by arnavpatnaik27
January 19th, 2019
In 2017, I began my KidPub journey. In 2018and in the end of 2017, I started my most popular series, KIDBRAINS :)
So below I have put together all of the articles I have written so far: all of the KidBrains fun we had in 2018 (and a bit of 2017 but you agree that the title sounds better as KidBrains rewind 2018 rather than Kidbrains rewind 2018 and a bit of 2017).
Why do people Yawn? The Science of Yawning. December 1st 2017, 251 reads.
So, people yawn. That is not the question what this KidBrains post is for. But the big question is WHY we yawn. If someone around us yawns, we feel like yawning. If you see a picture of someone yawning, you feel like yawning. If you see the word ‘yawning’, you feel like yawning. I just yawned myself. You probably just yawned as well. So it is obviously contagious, but not like contagious illnesses or anything like that. If something is contagious, it means it can spread from one person or organism to another, typically by direct contact. But this still does not explain why we yawn when we see a video of someone yawning, for example. I just yawned, AGAIN.
One theory is that if your breathing slows, or if you do not take in enough oxygen for a period of time, a yawn will take in a higher quantity of oxygen and release more carbon dioxide from your blood stream. Furthermore, when the brain’s temperature gets too high, inhaling air can help it to cool down, which is why we yawn less in winter. When you are bored, your brain does not feel energetic so it slows down, causing a temperature drop. But if you SEE someone yawn, and the same occurs to you, it is because you are in the same environment as them and the temperature is the same. Normally, people with migraines yawn to cool down the brain when blood clots there.
A test with 135 college students who did the test below showed a distinct correlation between yawning and empathetic qualities. FIRST, try the test below!
Breathe in for as long as it takes to read this sentence.
Hold till you read this sentence.
Breathe out for as long as it takes to read this sentence.
(Repeat eight times or more.)
If you yawned, it is a GOOD thing. It shows you are feeling empathy and bonding. When you see someone else yawn and these certain facial movements, it stimulates a part of the brain called the supra-marginal gyrus which is located in the cerebral cortex. If your empathetic qualities are sensitive and strong, you are more likely to yawn. I just yawned AGAIN.
So now you know more about yawning and its theories, I hope you can understand this strange action the body forces you to do. And, to finish, I just yawned!
Did you yawn while you read this?
What are WHITE HOLES? The Paradoxes of the Beasts of the Universe. December 1st 2017, 223 reads.
Before we can understand what a WHITE HOLE is, we must understand the concept of a black hole, the beast of the cosmos. A black hole is a region of space where nothing, not even electromagnetic radiation, such as light, can escape from its pull. And if you apply the logic that black and white are opposites, then white holes are regions of space where matter is spewed out in super-massive quantities, and no matter can enter it. The scientific term for what a black hole pulls in is ‘information’. Both Einstein and Newton stated, “Matter cannot be created or destroyed. It can only change into other forms.” This concept would work perfectly if matter is stored in a black hole for eternity, but, Stephen Hawking created the concept of ‘Hawking Radiation’. This said that black holes actually RADIATE energy, eventually resulting in the disappearance of the black hole. But what would happen to the information inside? Let’s contemplate the theories (some utterly insane) about this:
- Some believe that once a black hole has radiated away, there is nothing which can now hold back the lost information. Therefore, a black hole TRANSFORMS into a white hole and spews out slightly deformed information.
- Another theory is that white holes are connected to black holes, creating a passage of negative energy connecting the two space ‘tissues’ of space time. This would go against the theory that nothing can travel faster than light (according to Einstein’s theory of relativity) but in fact, information which gets sucked into a black hole immediately gets violently spewed out by a white hole. This could occur in another part of space or in another universe alone…
- Some people have taken this concept even FURTHER (wow, this white hole business has got people interested). They say that the Big Bang was a white hole spewing out information from a black hole which formed in a different universe, creating our universe. But if this is true, then that means that everything we know and our whole universe, is in a black hole, which is a resident of a different, almost infinitely bigger Universe.
The diagram below illustrates this theory. The Os represent the size of the black hole. The I is the rest of the Universe.
First Universe: IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIOOOOOOOOOOOIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
Second Universe: IIIIOOOIIIII
Third Universe: IOI
…and so on. And there would not be only three universes. If there were more Big Bangs occurring then there could be an infinite number of Universes.
And after all of this debate, white holes might not even exist…
Where did NINTENDO begin? The History of Nintendo. December 2nd 2017, 216 reads.
Like all famous companies of today, Nintendo started off as something no one knew about, selling playing cards in 1889 by a man in Japan. (I am sure you did not know that!)
It then progressed, like this:
1963-1968: Nintendo launch taxi company, hotels and food services, which all fail. But they tried.
1975: Created EVR Race Game.
1979: Create another arcade game.
1980: First hand-held gaming system, selling 43.4 million units sold worldwide.
1981: Create Donkey Kong.
1983: Release first Pharmacon, cartridge-based video console. 500,000 sold in two months.
1985: NES (Nintendo Entertainment system) sold worldwide. With it came, SuperMario brothers.
1986: Metroid and SuperMario Brothers 2
1987: Legend of Zelda - very popular.
1988: First issue of Nintendo Power magazine, monthly advertising of new games.
1989: Gameboy released with Tetris. BECAME BEST SELLING GAME SYSTEM OF ALL TIME.
1991: Super Nintendo Entertainment System in USA and Japan.
1995: Virtual Boy released, big flop and stopped.
1996: Nintendo 64 released. 500,000 + sold in the first day! Very good 3D at the time.
1996: PocketMonsters, known today as PokeMon, released. 230 million sales.
1998: Nintendo Colour released in North America, Europe and Japan.
2001: Getting more advanced with Console released.
2004: Nintendo DS - 3 million pre orders.
2006: Nintendo Wii released.
2011: Nintendo 3DS. Parallax Barrier enabled non-glasses 3D vision.
2012: Nintendo Wii-U - first device in 1080p HD.
And then, you probably know what has happened to Nintendo.
So this was the history of Nintendo, a world famous game company. If only the card maker in Japan in 1889 could see it, he would be SHOCKED to find out that a simple card game became a company selling millions of devices every year.
Took Nintendo 223 years to go from cards to the Wii-U, but it was worth it!
What are the ODDS? Lightning, Plane Crash, Aliens etc. December 7th 2017, 225 reads.
There are many unlikely events that may occur to someone in their lifetime, but I am sure that it would be interesting to find out the STATISTICS about ‘the odds’ (because statistics are cool). This KidBrains post will outline the chances of many crazy events, and analyse WHY this is the case!
Lightning hitting you in your Lifetime
Chance: 1 in 3,000 (0.03%)
So clearly, lightning hitting you is VERY unlikely. So I think it would be good advice to not be so scared that you never go outside again (but it is completely your choice). If lightning does strike you, it may not even mean that you die! In fact, being hit by lightning is more likely than winning certain jackpots! However, in some countries, like the US of A, the chances of being hit are 1 in 10! (Okay, maybe now you can start worry just a LITTLE bit.)
Being in a Plane which Crashes
Chance: 1 in 11,000,000 (0.000009%)
Just to put this into perspective, that is like being in Portugal and randomly being chosen from the whole population.
See! People are SO scared when they get on a plane, and I wish I could just tell you this statistic before you ruin 6 hours of your life worrying about crashing when you are flying high above the clouds, with an AMAZING view outside your window, with a huge variety of ways to entertain yourself and friendly service and food. The only reason why we get shocked by plane crashes is because they are so rare (and partially because all news channels show every one). Being in a car accident is 500 times more likely than being in a plane crash. Happy flying!
Chance: 1 in 11,500 (0.0087%)
You read it correctly. Being famous isn’t so easy. “I want to be famous,” is something many people say (MUCH more than the actual number of people who DO become famous). It is simple, really. The test below should help you understand the chances of you becoming famous.
Think of the thing YOU are best at.
Get 11,500 people who chose the same thing.
Be better than all of them.
Being better than every other person is the chance of being famous! Please, however, do not feel that this means give up trying. I am just warning you to have a back-up plan in case this famous thing does not work out for you. But:
You have been warned!
Ok, those were the important ones, and below are some other events with their chances.
Being a Billionaire: 1 in 4908836 (0.00002%)
Getting a Hole-in-one: 1 in 12500 (0.00008%)
ALIEN LIFE: 1 in 100000000000000000000000 (0.000000000000000000001%) Just to put this into perspective, umm, actually I won't even try.
Wow, some things seem amazing but they will probably never be found or happen (yep, good luck finding those aliens, humans)!
What if the SUN DISAPPEARED? That Darkest Hypothetical Question of Modern Society. December 15th 2017, 260 reads.
Before I begin, matter just disappearing is impossible (do not get worried as you read this).
Besides the EXTREMELY dark title, this would not be all that bad (ok, it would, but not for a while). Many things would occur without the Sun, obviously, so this KidBrains post will investigate this ‘dark’ question!
A common misconception is that the Sun disappearing would mean immediate darkness, like turning off a light in a room. However, it takes 8 minutes and 20 seconds for light to reach Earth from the Sun, so if it DID disappear, we would not know for a few minutes before we are PLUNGED into darkness. Furthermore, Earth would remain warm for millions of years, at least compared to its vacuum surrounding, but we humans would feel the cold before that.
I have been quite light about the HORRIFIC effects of this event, so, let us see what would happen…
All the plants would die. This would cause all the animals reliant on food to become extinct, even the PANDAS (which by FAR is the most terrifying consequence to our Sun taking a vacation). Our Sun really needs to work on his manners: he should tell us in advance when desiring a solar leave of absence!
Scientists have tackled, but not proven, that gravity works instantaneously and if the Sun disappeared then everything on Earth would go flying into the vacuum of space. Since a circular orbit can no longer be maintained, Earth and all the other planets would sling away in the direction they were traveling at the moment of MilkyWay Light-turning-off.
And, I have to get to the dark point, but, everything would die. Earth would be a rogue planet - these are planets which do not have a parent star.
If a movie* was to be created today about what would happen if the Sun DISAPPEARED, then it would be like one of those movies where countries are underwater and things like that, only, like, 10 times worse?
(A trillion times worse.)
Luckily, this will never happen so enjoy your time in a solar system where a star knows better than to abandon his loyal, planetary sons and daughters!
*suggest a name for a movie like this!
What if we Only Ate FRUITS and VEGETABLES? Too Much Healthiness? December 17th 2017, 377 reads.
We all know that fruits and vegetables are essential in our diet, but what if we ONLY ate these two things? This KidBrains post will see if ‘too much healthiness’ is possible, and if so, what effects it could have. Read on to find out!
Firstly, fruits and vegetables is a long phrase, so I will just say F&V (do not judge).
F&V are very useful for our body. They give us essential vitamins like vitamin A, C or E which are antioxidants. Including F&V in our diets can protect you against cancer, diabetes or heart disease (go fruits and vegetables, our world’s food heroes). If you DON’T eat any F&V, you could get vitamin deficiencies. You have probably heard of scurvy, a disease which affected sailors on long voyages because of a lack of vitamin C. You probably want to eat TRUCKLOADS of broccoli now!
But that is not the question. What if we ONLY ate F&V?
Fruits contain natural sugars, and if we ate too much, it would have the same effects of eating too much un-natural sugar. A diet consisting of only F&V would mean a low calorie intake. This would lead to heart problems and osteoporosis and more medical conditions. Not getting enough calories would also mean that you may feel dizzy or tired. This does not mean that you shouldn’t eat F&V (oh no I WOULD NEVER tell you to do THAT, that would make me a bad influence). But do not only eat it. F&V usually contain lots of fibre, and a sudden change from you regular diet to a high fibre one would be hard for your body to get used to.
If I put a banana in front of you, you would probably say it is healthy.
Similarly, if I put a doughnut in front of you, you may say it is unhealthy.
In fact, ANYTHING is unhealthy in excess. (Essentially anything has a devil inside them, even F&V.)
So now this KidBrains post may make you look at that annoying piece of broccoli on your plate differently. After all, if I gave you 2000 strawberries, it is, well, unhealthy.
Too much healthiness is therefore, real.
Should we Bring Extinct Species to Life? Men Ride on Mammoths. December 22nd, 180 reads.
If a species is extinct, no more of its kind live on Earth (but you knew that). Species such as the famous dodo bird or the dinosaurs have been extinct for a very long time, but should we bring them back to life? This KidBrains post will answer this question (obviously, or else there would be no point of me writing it).
First we will need to understand WHY these species went extinct in the first place. Species which went extinct a long time ago would have survived when weather, climate and many other things like their habitat could be different. Species like the dodo bird were hunted to extinction because they could not fly and they did not fear humans (why they did not fear creatures about FIVE times their size is a different story). But think of it like this. If humans became extinct now because pigeons started to eat us, and another species brought us back to life 4000 years later when all the oceans had dried up and everything was a desert, then we would not survive.
Basically, it would be CRUEL to do that to any species.
But have we already done it? Scientists have inserted wooly mammoth cells into an elephant, but complete de-extinction doesn’t look possible any time soon. However (this will be interesting) we have ‘resurrected’ an extinct Spanish species from its frozen skin!
(It died four minutes after birth, but hey, they tried.)
It would only be possible to CLONE an extinct animal if they became extinct recently and still have intact cells and nuclei. The wooly mammoth or the passenger pigeon may never be cloned.
So next time you go to the zoo, bring out your cameras and take thousands (no exaggerating) pictures of the pandas. Who knows, in about four generations time the panda could be remembered in photographs (OH THIS IS FRIGHTENING to think about let’s end this article).
CHRISTMAS SPECIAL. The Symbols of Christmas. December 25th 2017, 191 reads.
First of all, Merry Christmas to everyone, whether you celebrate it or not! This joyous occasion has been celebrated for thousands of years. It is celebrated by 96% of Christians (unsurprisingly) and 81% of non-Christians (surprisingly). There are lights on the streets and wonderfully decorated trees in our homes. And all us kids are enjoying our presents from Santa (I know I am)! But have we actually stopped to consider the significance of all the Christmas traditions and symbols? Well, this KidBrains post will help us find out!
The ‘J’ of a Candy Cane means Jesus. The white represents God’s purity and the red represents the blood of Jesus Christ when he died on the cross. This sweet Christmas delicacy’s peppermint flavour represents the hyssop plant which was used to purify the Bible.
They also taste nice!
This is hung up outside our homes to bring good luck and ward off evil spirits. It is a plant which grows on many types of trees.
St Nicholas was a bishop who had a lot of money when his parents gave it to him when they died. Santa is based around this, I think.
It represents the birth of Christ and the Tree of Knowledge at the Garden of Eden.
The white snow represent God's forgiveness of our sins. The circular snowballs show the everlasting life God promises us. The carrot nose shows us that God has given us the Earth and all living things. The black coal mouth reminds us to give God praise. The scarf keeps us warm, just as God's love does. The top hat reminds us to honor God above all things. The twig arms are open to hold us the way God does when we need Him.
Its circular shape represents an ongoing circle of life and everlasting love from God.
Merry Christmas to everyone, from Arnav!
Was the MOON LANDING a HOAX? Armstrong and Aldrin to be Forgotten? December 31st 2017, 190 reads.
Since all of us were small, we have accepted the fact that Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first two people to set foot on the Moon on July 20th, 1969. They brought glory to America and earned everlasting fame across the globe. But some evidence could suggest that this space landing WAS a HOAX. So everlasting fame? This KidBrains post will find out!
At (UTC time) 8:15 pm, the world celebrated man’s first imprint on the Moon. I believe the Moon landing was NOT a hoax, so I have researched some hoax-believers’ arguments and I will counter them based on what I know and some research. Furthermore, some of these arguments are from famous Moon landing pictures, so you can easily find them on the internet (links are at the bottom).
Ok let’s begin.
- THE FLAPPING FLAG. This shows it was a hoax because the Moon does not have an atmosphere, so there is no air for the flag to flap in. I think it is just because the picture was taken immediately after the flag being put down, and since the Moon’s gravity is weak, the flag would take some time to float into its resting place.
- MYSTERIOUS LIGHTS. In this picture, some kind of reflection can be seen which look identical to studio lights. I do not know about this, but my research showed that these reflections are simply lens flares and the mysterious shape in the middle is from the aperture of the camera.
- STARLESS SKY. There are absolutely no stars in the black sky ahead of the picture. Well, the Moon reflects light, so this could drown out the light of the stars. Research is on my side (take that, conspiracists) which says the astronauts took the pictures in a tiny fraction of a second, and stars usually don’t show up in this small time span.
- SHADOW BUZZ. As he is descending from the Eagle, he is in its shadow. However, Buzz is completely visible. There are multiple sources of light on the Moon, like the Sun, Earth and the men themselves, so Buzz is visible.
- INVISIBLE SOUVENIRS. Whilst the two men were there, they placed a few objects they did not need on the Moon to remember the Moon landing. However, these objects cannot even be seen by the most powerful telescope. I do not know why, but my research says that even the most powerful telescope can only see objects slightly bigger than a house on the Moon.
So now the decision is YOURS. I have shown you a few conspiracists’ theories, with all of them being countered by me and the internet. The event is still officially NOT a hoax, but hey, that doesn’t mean your opinion can’t be different.
What do you think?
Goodbye, and HAPPY NEW YEAR from Arnav!
Number 2 picture:
(copy and paste this into google and click ‘images’, it is the first one. Also other pictures which I used are there)
When will DOOMSDAY Occur? Ways in which Our World could END. January 12th 2018, 238 reads.
Everything has a beginning. And an end.
Earth is no exception to this rule (unlucky, my fellow earthlings). So, it is obvious that Earth will ‘die’ one day. This does not mean that the planet has to be destroyed, but all life forms on it could die. This is the equivalent of DOOMSDAY. I have tried to make this post seem less dark than the title, but make yourself mentally prepared. Although these are all theories, you may become worried (you probably won’t, but… um, moving on). This KidBrains post will see some ways in which our wonderful planet could END; some of these may seem rather astonishing to you…
Way 1 - Methane Overload
And before I continue, no, it is not the methane you are thinking of. Underneath the seabeds of the entire planet are deposits of methane clathrate. Although there is a significantly smaller amount of methane in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide, it makes up for 7% of global warming today. Sometimes, the methane inside the seabeds could destabilise, and release HUGE amounts of this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere, resulting in a warming effect on the globe. This has happened before (that is worrying) but that was 252,000,000 years ago (less worrying now). During this release, 96% of marine life died in the whole planet. It was an aquatic-apocalyptic event.
Way 2 - Nano Machines
Sometimes, oil spills have occurred in our oceans, and threatened many forms of aquatic life. To clean up this deadly spill, scientists could create nano machines. These machines would be programmed to consume the oil in the seas. However, in the process of duplicating these tiny machines, an error could occur. Suddenly, these life-saving things would consume any carbon-based living being.
Now that is SCARY. Imagine being eaten alive by tiny things which can duplicate and which you can’t see.
Way 3 - ROBOT INVASION
I hope you haven’t read this title and immediately thought I was about to speak nonsense (KidBrains never speaks nonsense…) because the chance of a robot invasion is a possibility. AI or Artificial Intelligence is the next level of man-made ‘life’. In the future, it is possible that we, as humans, will be able to give AI a sense of JUDGEMENT, or hope, or feelings…
An AI robot could begin to consider itself superior to their creators. They could see their power button as a danger to their existence. They could figure out that we humans fight when we come across a danger or an obstacle. Taking all of these points into account, the robots could decide to take action first…
So the next time you use your TV remote, make sure you keep an eye on it.
Because you’ll never know when it will get too smart…
What if Earth’s MOON DISAPPEARED? Dark Nights now Darker. January 20th 2018, 142 reads.
Sometimes I just stand still and look up at night, and watch the trillions of stars which, to me, look like the plants of the sky. But the king of the night is the Moon. It has been the companion of our planet for 4.5 billion years. The Moon does disappear when there are many clouds in the sky, but that is not what this KidBrains is about. I mean when the Moon literally DISAPPEARS from existence. You might remember my ‘What if the SUN DISAPPEARED’ KidBrains post, in which the effects of it were quite horrific. Unfortunately, the Moon’s disappearance is no better (#RespectTheMoon). Okay let’s start.
Firstly, the tide levels would decrease to about 1/3 of what they are now, and tidal waves would not occur anymore (unlucky surfers). These two things only happen because of the Sun and Moon’s gravitational pull. It is mainly the Moon, so the waves and tides would happen very rarely.
Second, the days on Earth would become a LOT shorter. It would be around 6-12 hours. This is because the Moon’s pull causes the Earth to spin more slowly, and without it, a more rapid rotation would occur. So after the Moon rudely abandons us, there would be about 1,000 days in an Earth year (that’s a lot, by the way).
Nights would be almost COMPLETELY dark apart from the light from planets like Venus. But this light would be 2,000 times less bright than the Moon’s light.
Without the Moon, the Earth’s tilt would vary. Because of the Moon, it is stable at 23.5º. These random tilt changes could mean no seasons or extremely violent weather.
But we need to also consider this. The Sun disappearing means life on Earth would inevitably die. But the Moon’s disappearance doesn’t have to result in this. Like you have seen above, the results are definitely bad, but not extremely bad. Furthermore, we need to know HOW the Moon could ‘disappear’. Matter cannot be created or destroyed, so the Moon disappearing completely is impossible.
It could become a black hole. A black hole is created when an object is compressed past its Schwarzschild Radius. This is the point at which anything becomes a black hole. For the Moon, this radius is 0.11mm (the most dangerous speck of dust in our solar system?).
So, do you appreciate our Moon more now?
Why do we Forget Things? The Science of Memory Loss. February 3rd 2018, 186 reads.
Our brain is an awesome body part, but sometimes it fails us. Like when you’re in a test and you forget an answer or that time someone else knows your name but you’ve forgotten their’s. And you think to yourself, ‘I used to know that - where did the information go?’. It would be reasonable to think that. I mean, if your brain knows something once, why does it forget later? That is what this KidBrains post will find out. Before we continue, remember the number 6734.
I have a theory, but I will need to test it first. I want you to think of a penny. You probably thought of a bronze circle with the Queen’s face on one side. However, you probably did not think of the phrase above the Queen’s face. That is because, it just doesn’t matter. Your brain cannot store all the information you process, so it cleverly organises it into IMPORTANT and UNIMPORTANT. That phrase (by the way, if you did remember it, well done) does not play an important role in our everyday lives, so it is forgotten.
Conclusion 1 - Our brain forgets memories which are not regularly thought about.
But how? Everything you do gets stored in the part of your brain called the hippocampus (this is not a place where hippos have bonfires and sleep in tents). It groups every small detail of your memory into one event, like you reading this KidBrains post. This means that in about three days, you will remember reading this but you will not remember every word in the introduction, for example. This is called the DECAY THEORY. So…
Conclusion 2 - Our brain forgets small details of a significant part of your life.
Something which I may not have made clear is how memories form, and therefore how they are lost. If you hear a phone ring, the thought is converted into electrical impulses that travel through the neurons in your brain. When neurons react with each other in the SYNAPSES, they help you remember information in the long-term. However, these synapses could weaken and you would forget.
And before I leave, there is one last thing.
Do not scroll up, and try and tell me the number I told you to remember at the beginning. Here are a few clues. 4 numbers.
6….. 7….. 3….. if you have remembered by now, that is because of the stimulation I provided to help you retrieve a memory. And therefore…
Conclusion 3 - Our brain sometimes needs a stimulation or hint to remember something.
What is something YOU always forget? Have you forgotten?
Which Animal is the SMARTEST? Crows and Ants Smarter than Humans? March 16th 2018, 283 reads.
We humans are pretty smart. From learning space travel to creating dancing robots and almighty spinning forks, we’ve conquered almost EVERY challenge we have faced and made it more efficient, gained new technological skills and grown smarter as a species. But are we the only smart ones out there? I just googled ‘dolphins balancing ball on nose’ and saw some incredible, ADORABLE pictures of our marine friends playing a bit of water polo. However, I could not stop thinking about this. Imagine the dolphin saying, “Someone help! I have an IQ Level of 180 but they make me put 50 gram balls on my nose!” I know there are no IQ tests for animals but… let’s just move on. So anyway, that got me wondering. How smart are the OTHER species on our planet? Well, this KidBrains post will find out (or there would be no point of me writing this)!
First, we will look at the animal humans are compared to the most which is the chimpanzee. Before we analyse different animals’ intelligence, there is an important aspect to consider. An animal’s whole intelligence cannot be measured by one factor such as speech or social skills. If we take this into account, then chimps are smarter than humans in some ways!
Before that, I would like you to quickly look through these numbers below, DO NOT revise them or memorise their position. Just scan over them QUICKLY from top to bottom or left to right, doesn’t matter.
Done? Now make sure you can’t see the numbers. Now can you tell me what number was on which line at what distance from the left of your screen? If you followed the instructions, you shouldn’t have been able to or at least struggled A LOT. Anyway, our chimp friends can accomplish this task without hesitation as shown by a study on a female chimp called Ayumu (I think that’s how it’s spelt). This is because chimps are more able to take in very quick information and store it in their short-term memory. Their awareness of position and depth is also very accurate compared to humans who may require a longer time to do the experiment above. Anyway, how many tries did it take YOU to do that test?!
Now let’s take to the sky where we shall meet the crows. Although it may seem like crows are not that intelligent, they have shown their brain skills on many occasions. Crows, just like prehistoric humans, use tools to survive. One particular crow was filmed using a twig to pick out beetle larvae from tree holes (disgusting, I know, but hey, crows may not like what we eat). Beetle larvae was placed on top of water in a jug, just out of the reach of the crow’s beak. A block was placed beside the jug. In fact, the crow knew about water displacement and used the block to bring the beetle larvae to the top of the jug. AMAZING! This places crows at around a 6-7-year-old human.
If we dive into the ocean, we see our playful dolphin friends.
(Just had to put these dolphins here.)
Dolphins use a different primary sense to that of humans, sound. They can literally send images to other dolphins using sound waves they send out. Basically, dolphins can communicate with HOLOGRAMS (I wish I could do that). For humans, our primary way to communicate is with sound and our sight to help us see. Dogs are also smart animals in terms of their social skills and ability to work well together.
One last thing. How about ANTS? Considering the size of their brain (not putting that into perspective) ants are extremely smart. This is the same with other small animals, but I will just outline ants’ intelligence. Firstly, ants’ sense of smell is amazing, and they can track down food far away from them. But the most surprising thing is there teamwork and organisation, especially when collecting food and creating anthills.
You know what? We humans could learn a thing or two about discipline and order from ants, especially when it comes to waiting in queues!
Which animal do YOU think is the smartest?
THREE in ONE: Why do we Sleep? What if we Never Slept? What if we Never Woke Up? April 5th 2018, 459 reads.
Why do we Sleep?
Sleep is important and liked by all of us. If it wasn’t, we humans wouldn’t do it everyday and we wouldn’t destroy our alarm clocks when they woke us up. We spend one third of our lives sleeping and apart from a few dreams here and there, we do not remember what happens during this time. Until fairly recently, the topic was never thoroughly looked into or analysed, and people assumed that the brain just switches on and off an regular intervals. But WHY do we sleep, and how does the brain do it? Let’s find out!
We may not realise it but our brains work incredibly hard during the day, and just like any other part of the body, needs a break. Whilst we do any activity, whether it’s playing outside or studying, our brain produces adenosine. The accumulation of this makes us sleep. During this time, our brain does various tasks such as organising information and re-absorbing the adenosine. This then makes the brain ready for the next day, which is why some of us wake up without an alarm (I hate alarms). The repetition of this process can lead to the brain automatically knowing it is time to sleep when it gets dark. This is because as soon as the brain notices it is dark, it releases melatonin, which makes us sleep. Since humans are not nocturnal creatures (creatures who are mainly active at night) we sleep instead.
So make sure you sleep, it’s good for you. Even if you’re not tired, just go to bed so your brain and body can take a break (AND HAVE A KIT-KAT).
What if we Never Slept?
Humans like to sleep. Ignoring those adamant young babies who either don’t sleep for hours on end or eventually do at daytime, the more common method is to sleep once at night (you’ll learn babies). It seems so normal that we may not think twice before jumping into bed and waking up in the morning. In 1964, the Guinness world record for the longest time without sleeping was set by Randy Gardner. He stayed awake for 11 days and 25 minutes. We can already see how difficult it is to not sleep for even a single fortnight, but can it be humanly possible, if needed, with some assistance, to NEVER sleep? Well this KidBrains will find out!
There are a few (hundred) health problems related to a lack of sleep: cardiovascular disease, obesity, depression and brain damage. After a few sleepless nights the brain loses the ability to plan and evaluate actions that will depict your day. This leads to slower reaction times and a reduced perceptual functions. The metabolism of glucose, which means how it is broken down to produce energy, is required for body parts such as the brain and red blood cells - after a few days without sleep, the body cannot do this. The immune system begins to weaken and chances of many diseases increase (that is NOT a good thing by the way). So, without stimulants of any kind, it is impossible to never sleep.
Around 1% of the population, called the SLEEPLESS ELITE (that is an awesome name) can survive with only one or two hours of sleep each night with no long-term health effects. But for the majority of people, never sleeping can slowly kill you, and if not, cause major health problems.
So, sleep, but not for too long because…
What if we Never Woke Up?
I was wondering why the baseball was getting bigger. And then it hit me. (Amazing pun from my 25 jokes and puns post.)
Let’s say you’ve had a head injury and you think it is minor and ignore it. Then, you go to sleep… but never wake up. This is called a coma. LIFE-SAVING TIP - Please take this seriously before I continue. If you have had any kind of injury to your head, major or minor, inform an adult or anyone with you. Do not ignore any small head injury, even if you just hit your head with someone else. Usually it is not too serious, but be on the safe side. Anyway, let’s discover what it’s like for someone to never wake up!
Whilst someone is in a coma, they cannot feel or hear anything. The brain does not work as much as it used to and the one affected usually can’t breathe on their own. A coma can last from a few weeks to, well, the person’s death. For this prolonged state of unconsciousness to occur, a few things must have happened to the brain. Both the cerebral hemispheres of your brain need to be damaged for a coma (both sides, in simple words).
However, a coma is not just caused by a head injury. It can also be the result of a brain tumour, diabetes or really bad infections. Another horrible thing can happen during a coma. It is called the locked-in syndrome. This is when the person is aware that they are in a coma, but cannot wake up. So, yes, it is not a good thing.
Keep calm and just sleep okay
What did the SMARTPHONE Take Away From Us? Lost Inventions. January 5th 2018, 168 reads.
When the first smartphone was created in 1992, it was an instant phenomenon around the world. Its easily accessible features made everyday lives for EVERYONE more convenient. And all of us know how nice the entertainment it provides can be. From music, to games, cameras, social networking, TV and more, the smartphone recreated, if not improved, these things on one device. But in the creation of the smartphone, many inventions became much less popular, and there is a slight sad feeling about that thought. This KidBrains will see exactly WHAT has almost been forgotten about or at least should be (like dabbing… but that’s a different story).
Do not read this. (HAHA, got you. Ok moving on.)
In 1895, the radio was invented by Guglielmo Marconi (I just copy and pasted that from Google; I couldn’t spell his name). Suddenly, people could hear the news whilst sitting at home and do other things such as know the weather forecast. In other words, people could find out about what was happening around them a LOT quicker. Now days, with a single tap, we can see what the weather will be in two weeks! We can see the news in any topic, such as sport. Radios are uncommon now unlike their immense admiration in the 20th century. Guglielmo would probably be quite confused to see that a thin slab of metal outdid the radio he spent years of his life making.
The stereo was another AMAZING invention. We could listen to music with it, I think, because I do not really remember what a stereo looks like… Anyway, now we can easily listen to music on our smartphones… you get the idea.
But with the downfall of inventions such as these comes the downfall of the companies who manufacture them. Certain radio-manufacturing companies have become bankrupt because of an EXTREMELY small number of sales.
But think about this (do not be a smarty and start thinking about the word ‘this’. You probably are now, though).
Although the smartphone has included many inventions on one device, where were those inventions created in the first place? Actually, we have not lost anything. Those famous inventors did not waste any time in making the things which brought them glory.
The origin of the TV and many other devices will always be remembered...
AND before we finish, that ending was too cheesy and emotional. This is much better, and colourful.
CHRISTMAS SPECIAL No. 2! Santa Claus is 1748 Years Old! December 25th 2018, 47 reads.
Hello everybody, and Merry Christmas! It’s that time of year again, and whether you celebrate this occasion or not, I hope all of you are enjoying your holidays and feeling excited for the new year! It can be a time to show gratitude towards someone who you feel does a lot for you or be kind to other people. For me, it is my birthday in 2 days, so the excitement of this festive season doesn’t end after today finishes. And as there is some free time for me now, I want to write another little KidBrains Christmas special and hope you can enjoy it with me!
Last year, I wrote a KidBrains about the symbols of Christmas where I told you what things such as candy canes and Christmas colours represent/symbolise. This year, I will show you 10 interesting facts about Christmas and a few Christmas jokes to put everyone in a festive mood (which is hard for us in England over here when you can barely make out Christmas lights through the fog and when there is as much snow on the ground as rainfall in the Saharan desert). OH NEVER MIND let’s begin.
(These facts were taken from websites on the Internet and I have not made this list myself.)
10. All letters addressed to Santa in the United States go to Santa Claus, Indiana post office. A small group of people actually read and write a reply to the thousands of letters (this is a great idea, especially for little kids who will feel delighted to receive a reply from Santa Claus himself).
9. Some zoos accept donated Christmas trees as food for their animals (talk about re-using).
8. It is estimated that the song "White Christmas" by Irving Berlin is the best selling single in history with over 100 million copies sold (good for him).
7. A large part of Sweden's population watches Donald Duck cartoons every Christmas Eve since 1960 (I can’t complain about that).
6. During the Christmas of 2010, the Colombian government covered jungle trees with lights. When FARC guerrillas (terrorists) walked by, the trees lit up with banners asking them to lay down their arms. 331 guerrillas re-entered society and the campaign won an award for strategic marketing excellence (the spirit of Christmas and good always wins).
5. During the Christmas of 1914 (World War 1), a truce was held between Germany and the U.K. They decorated their shelters, exchanged gifts across no man’s land and played a game of football between themselves (another example of the spirit of Christmas ending evil and war).
4. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, a "little ice age" took place where global temperatures were several degrees lower than normal. For this reason, many Christmas songs stress a "White Christmas.” (I wish it was snowing now.)
3. The Nazi party tried to turn Christmas into a non-religious holiday, celebrating the coming of Hitler with Saint Nicholas replaced by Odin the “Solstice Man” and swastikas on top of Christmas trees. (That not good, Christmas should be celebrated by religious and/or non-religious peeepol.)
2. An artificial Christmas tree would have to be reused for more than 20 years to be "greener" than buying a fresh-cut tree annually (I just gave my artificial tree a frown).
1. SANTA CLAUS IS 1748 YEARS OLD!
Once again, merry Christmas to you all. And from me, Arnav, I hope 2019 will be a wonderful year for you! Goodbye
So that's all. Let's see if I can stop procrastinating and add some more interesting KidBrains in 2019!
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